According to some reports, the United States is looking for a language to improve the protection of trade secrets, especially as the USTR continues to characterize the protection of U.S. trade secrets as a growing challenge in its 2014 Special Report on IPR Protections 301 abroad.77 This text addresses concerns in the U.S. economy that U.S. governments have lobbied for the release of trade secrets or to transmit technologies to promote a country`s „indigenous innovation policy.“ Businesses are also reportedly increasingly victims of real theft of trade secrets, including by cyber-theft, and have criticized the often lax ways to combat such thefts. Penalties for the theft of trade secrets vary considerably from country to country; 78 The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was implemented to promote trade between the United States, Canada and Mexico. The agreement, which removed most tariffs on trade between the three countries, came into force on 1 January 1994. Between 1 January 1994 and 1 January 2008, many tariffs – notably for agriculture, textiles and automobiles – were phased out. The Trans-Pacific Partnership is perhaps the most ambitious trade negotiation in the world. It will reduce new avenues on important issues, from the challenges of state-owned enterprises to the improvement of regional supply chains, through the guarantee of the free flow of cross-border data, to the improvement of regional supply chains, to the transparency of reducing bureaucracy.

We are also working to strengthen the protection of work and the environment… Our goal is for high standards for the Trans-Pacific Partnership to enter the bloodstream of the global system and improve rules and standards.- Vice President Joseph P. Biden, April 5, 2013 Yet, in 1854, tensions over slavery rose again through the Kansas and Nebraska organization. While Kansas and Nebraska were not part of the Mexican surrender, their debates about their organization are related to the war between Mexico and America. As mentioned above, the war between Mexico and America reopened discussions on the organization of the territory, and one of the proposed solutions was popular sovereignty. While the 1850 compromise chose not to include popular sovereignty, it reappeared in 1854 with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, where Kansas and Nebraska were organized with popular sovereignty. The Kansas-Nebraska Act created Bleeding Kansas, where slaves and anti-slavery Americans flocked to Kansas to found a slave or free government in that state, which eventually erupted into violence, where neighbors killed a neighbor in the name of slavery and abolition. Bleeding Kansas is also the first case in which John Brown, famous for his assault on Harper`s Ferry in 1859, resorted to violence to confront his radical vision of abolition.

In addition, the Kansas-Nebraska Act put future President Abraham Lincoln in the national spotlight. The Kansas-Nebraska Act was Senator Stephen Douglas of the Illinois Pet Project and popular sovereignty is often associated with Douglas. In 1858, Lincoln and Douglas conducted a series of debates focused primarily on popular sovereignty and the extension of slavery. While Lincoln lost the 1858 Senate election to Douglas, he became famous for the debates that positioned himself as a Republican candidate in the 1860 presidential election. In addition, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was the final nail in the coffin of the Whig Party, paving the way for the founding of the Republican Party, the first prominent anti-slavery party rooted in secularism. U.S. agricultural interests and agri-food groups supported the inclusion in the text of the TPP of an SPS dispute enforcement mechanism.